Basic English – BENG 110

Basic English I(EnLa111)


The main aim of this course (Basic English I) is to develop your ability to use English effectively and efficiently in different situations. The course assists you to communicate with the speakers of English language through speaking, listening, reading and writing.

To this end, it provides you with:

  • Opportunities for communication based on your experiences and on the context provided in the course.
  • A variety of speaking, listening, reading and writing which enhances your overall language skills
  • A lot of active learning methods through individual, pair and group works that help you to develop your communicative competence and confidence in communication.
  • The habit of independent learning by engaging yourself in different activities.
  • Different techniques of language learning activities which in turn makes

Course Objectives

The main objectives of the course are to enable you:

  • Speak and listen with a reasonable  degree of fluency and accuracy
  • Read different materials and get specific and general points of the materials
  • Apply different specific sub skills (Predicting, scanning, skimming, inferring note making, writing ,summaries, referring, note- taking)
  • Write paragraphs for various purposes
  • Use grammatical structures accurately in your discourse

Unit One

Protect the Environment and Save lives

Unit out comes:

At the end of the unit, the trainees should be able to:

  • Introduce themselves and others using appropriate phrases
  • Greet and part others formally and informally
  • Read, the text and identify the main and detail ideas
  • Guess the meaning of new words
  • Identify the use and form of present tenses

Section One: Speaking


Activity -1

  1. When teachers enter class , what do they say to the class before they start the day’s lesson?
  2. Imagine you are coming in to college from outside. When you meet one of your class mates , what would you say to him/her?
  3. List the expressions you use to greet people, and share them with your classmate.  

Some of the phrases we use for greeting are:

HelloGood morning/Afternoon/EveningHow are you?HiMorning/afternoon?How’s everything?Nice to see you

Some of the ways of responding to greeting are:

HelloGood morning/Afternoon/evening?Fine, thank youHiMorning/Afternoon Fine ,not bad Me too

Have a look at the following dialogues

  1. Mulatu: Hello, obbo Guta. How are you this morning?

Guta: Fine , thank you. how are you?

Mulatu: Fine

  • Wako: Good afternoon, Yonas.

Yonas: Good afternoon Wako .How are you?

Wako: Fine, thank you. How is Aster?

Yonas: She’s fine . Please remember me to your family.

Wako: Thank you. I will

  • Teshome: Hi, Azeb

Azeb: Hi, Teshome. How is everything?

Teshome: Good and you?

Azeb: No, So well. I’ve got a terrible sore throat.

Teshome: I hope you will feel better.


  1. Greet one of your class mates both formally and informally.
  2. Suppose your partner is one of the college instructors. Greet him/her using appropriate phrases.
  3. Face your class mate sitting at your back desk and greet him/her. Then make a dialogue with him and finally convey greeting to one of his/her family members.


So far as greeting exists, parting is inevitable. When someone has to depart from a person or group of persons, they take the following into consideration. The length of time of their relation with the persons.

Activity -1

Practice with the other trainee sitting beside you what you would say in the following situations.

  1. Imagine your classmate is going to Gonder. you are at the bus station to see him/her off. When he/she gets in to the bus, what would you say to him/her before you turn back?
  2. Discuss the phrases you use when you depart from other persons

Below are some of the phrases we use when parting

Good bye/nightHave a nice day/weekend/holidayGood bye and good luck  ByeSo longSee you aroundHave a nice day/Weekend


Good bye /nightThank you /Thank you, the same to youByeSo long See youThanks/Thanks, you too

Example dialogues

  1. Roba: Would you mind if I discuss about this now?

Tulu: Please, don’t misunderstand, I’m going away on holiday

Roba: Oh, I see . Good bye till we meet then.

Tulu: Good bye

Roba: Have a nice holiday

Tulu: Thank you, the same to you

  • Solomon: Hi, Samuel

Samuel :  Hi, Solomon Join us, please

Solomon : Sorry , I’ve got to run, see you next week.

Samuel : Ok, bye. Have a nice weekend

Solomon : Thanks, you too

Activity- 2

  1. Take yourself as a teacher and talk with your friend ( a student) that he has to work hard. But in the middle of your conversation, you realized that you’ve to make a call to someone. Close the conversation.
  2. While you are discussing some issue with your friend, your realize that you are a few minutes late from a tutorial class. close the conversation.
  3. You are discussing geography with your uncle. Immediately, you remember that your have to make a phone call to a friend. Ask excuse and close the conversation.

Introducing yourself and others


  1. Introduce yourself to the other trainee sitting beside you considering the following information:



The school you came from:

The subject you like most:

Your hobbies

  • Find out about your classmate with regard to the above information (present questions to him/her).
  • Yeshi is your friend and she does not know Beletu, the other friend of yours. How would you introduce Yeshi to Beletu?
  • Discuss some phrases that we use to introduce two people to each other.

We often find ourselves in a situation where we have to introduce two or more people who do not know each other.

Here are some use ful phrases:

I’d like to introduce you to —————-

May I introduce you to ———————–?

Let me introduce you to ————————

I’d like you to meet ——————————

Example Conversation

  1. Wario : Abebe, I would like you to meet my friend Tola.

Abebe: How do you do?

Tola:  How do you do?

  • Nigatu : Obo Lema, may I introduce you Obo Temesgen, he is the dean of our college

Obo Lema: How do you do?

Obo Temesgen : It’s pleasure to meet you. We had a three day’s meeting together last week.

Obo Lema : Oh, I’m sorry. I usually forget a face

Obo Temesgen : It doesn’t matter. I meant to remind you

Obo Lema: Thank you . I hope to meet you again.

Obo Temesgen: I hope to meet you, too

Activity- 2

  1. Imagine two of your classmates who are sitting on your left and right sides do not know each other. Introduce them to each other.
  2. Introduce your father to your friend. Tell your father something about your friend. Practise this in group of three considering one of your classmates as father and the other one as friend.
  3. You are walking with Taye, your friend who has just returned from America. You meet Degu your brother. Introduce them to each other

Section Two

Language Awareness –Present Tenses

  • Simple present
  • Present continuous
  • Present perfect tense

Simple present tense

Activity-1 (pair work)

Ask your friend the following questions and also  allow him to ask you the questions. Both of you are expected to use complete sentences when you give answer to the questions.

  1. What do you usually eat for breakfast?
  2. If you put better in the sun, what happens to the batter?
  3. Does your friend always participate in class activity?
  4. Do they come to class every day?
  5. Write one sentence about yourself using simple present tense and share it with your class mate.

Present Continuous tense

The simple present tense is used to to talk about :

  1. Habitual action

He goes to school every morning

They usually eat bread for breakfast

  • General truth (fact)

The sun rises in the east

Water boils at 1000c

  • A planned future action

We leave London at 10.00 next Monday

Activity -2

  1. Change the following sentences in to negative and question form.
  2. She likes banana
  3. They speak English well

2.Write two sentences using simple present tense about your brother and read the

sentences to your classmate. Use one affirmative and one negative sentences

Present Continuous Tense


  1. Discuss the form and the use of present continuous tense in group of five
  2. Write one sentence using this tense and share it to your group members

The present continuous is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb be + the present participle. (eg are going, is running)

This tense is used:

  1. For an action happening now 

It is raining .

We are discussing present continuous tense

  • For an action happening about this time, but not necessarily at the moment of speaking

Abebech is teaching English at Addis Ababa University.

  • For a definite arrangement in the near future

I am meeting Gutema to night.

Activity -2

  1. Ask your classmate two questions using this tense, and allow him/her to ask you.
  2. Write three sentences in present continuous tense considering the above uses of the tense . Share the sentences with your classmate.

Present perfect tense


 Look at the following sentences carefully

  • She has lived here for two years.
  • I have had my lunch.
  • They have finished writing their assignment.
  • What is the tense these sentences are written in?
  • Is there a difference between simple past tense and this tense?  Discuss the difference with your partner.

Form and Use of the tense

This tense is formed with the present tense to have+ the past participle (has/have+V3). E.g has done, have seen

This tense is used to express an action completed in the past, but in some way connected with the present.


  • She has lived here for two years

(She is still living here)

  • I have finished my assignment

(Now, I’m free and I can help with yours)


Discuss the difference between the meanings of the following pairs of sentences.

  1. I ate my lunch . (Simple past tense)

 I have eaten my lunch.(present perfect tense)

  • He has taught English for three years .

she taught English for three years

Section Three: Vocabulary


  1. What is the importance of knowing a word?

Discuss in group of three.

  • When do you  say that you know a word? share your answer to your partners?
  • Discuss ways of knowing the meanings of un familiar words in sentences.

If you are poor in your vocabulary, you won’t be able to learn to use English . There are a variaety of ways of knowing words in sentences. Some of them are using contextual clues, word structure (affix),

Activity -2

  1. Find synonyms for the following words

Example: Fast / quick               small /little

  1. Jump
  2. Clever
  3. Change
  4. Find antonyms for the following

Example: black/          white

            Short/  Tall

  1. Far
  2. Down
  3. Wet
  4. Write two pairs of words for both synonyms and antonyms from your own and share them with your partners
  5. Identify prefixes and suffixes in the following words
  6. disagree
  7. hopeful
  8. illegal
  9. disagreement
  10. carefully
  11. Guess the meaning of the words printed in bold in the following sentences . share the technique you use to guess the meaning to your class mates.
  12. The result of the candidates’ entrance, exam may not be as we expect. It is unpredictable.
  13. Lomi and Ayelech always disagree about abortion. They have a different opinion about it.
  14. We hear a lot about the negative effects of television on the viewer. obviously, television can be harmful if it is watched constantly to the exclusion of other activities.

Section Four: Writing

Descriptive Sentences and paragraphs


  1. Tell your classmate about your personal information (name, age , height, physical appearance)
  2. What is descriptive writing? write down your answer and then share it to your classmate.

Writing is one of the four macro language skills through which people communicate.  Using visual symbols. Descriptive writing is a writing which describes people, places or situations using descriptive adjectives.

Here are some of these descriptive adjectives

tall                                           round

calm                                        black hair

friendly                                    smiling face

wide                                        clean

Look at the following descriptive sentences

  1. My bed room is very wide
  2. H is sister has pointed nose and big eyes.
  3. The man who is wearing white shirt under his black coat looks happy.


  1. Think of any one of your, classmates other than the one who is sitting beside you, and describe him/her what he/she looks like . Also consider what type of clothes he is wearing today. Then tell the trainee sitting beside you the description and allow him to identify whom you have descried. During your description, do not look at the trainee and also do not call his /her name. It is the trainee beside you who should identify whom you describe and call out his name just from your description.
  2. Write one descriptive paragraph of 5 to 7 sentences about yourself and

share it to your class mates

                                   Unit Two: Festivals

Unit out comes: At the end of the unit, the trainees should be able to:

  • Express opinions
  • Read a passage and answer the questions taken out from the passage (practice the reading sub skills)
  • Identify the form and use of the simple past tense
  • Write a simple narrative paragraph

Section One: Speaking

Giving Opinion

Opinion is a feeling people have about something. They express their feeling /opinion using different phrases. The following are some of these phrases:

I think ———

In my opinion ———–

It seems to me ———–

I suppose ———–

It is my opinion that ————

I am convinced that ————

Activity -1

  1. Give your opinion about the following topics( discuss in pair)
  2. Watching TV is a waste of time
  3. Celebrities have too much money
  4. Nowadays people prefer TV to radio.

Section Two


Pre-reading Activities

Exercise 1: Before you read the following passage, answer the following questions.

  1. In which month in your area New Year is celebrated?
  2. What do people in your area do when they celebrate New Year?
  3. Have you ever participated in New Year celebration? If you have, share to your classmates important events you remember.

Now read the following passage about Ethiopian New Year and answer the questions that follow it.

                                         ETHIOPIAN NEW YEAR

Ethiopia is a country of many different cultures and these are constantly evolving in the process of modernization. But the country side is where the old colorful customs are more likely practiced; and the New Year festivities are no exception.

Traditionally, on New Year’s Eve men in the country side would rise before  dawn ‘ before the birds taste the water’  as people go down to the river to wash and to collect water for those unable to go to the river by themselves. Women might also go down to wash, well before the first light of dawn.

It was customary on New Year’s Eve for country-folk to burn torches above the doors of their houses, and to rush around with the flaming torches, celebrating the passing of the old year and the coming of the New Year. Young girls would pick a special kind of grass, called engicha or enqwutatash in honor of the event, and would go around singing New Year messages of good will, and presenting the grass to whomever they would meet. In the old days, persons of substance would reciprocate by giving the girls modest gifts, like silver Maria thersa thalers, or dollars.   

New Year’s Day in a typical Ethiopian peasant house is happy and festive. The floor is strewn with freshly-cut sweet –smelling grass, which is long and green after the rainy season. What’s more, the children of the family go with their young friends from house to house with bunches of wild flowers to give to the friends ,who might reward them with a piece of bread.

Peasant families often celebrate New Year’s Day with considerable feasting-slaughtering, depending on their means, a sheep or chicken. Tradition in some particular areas holds that these animals should if possible be of a lucky color. Farsoo or traditional beer is also prepared, and there are much eating and drinking, perhaps to excess. However, it is not celebrated alike in every peasant’s home. Those who are very poor may skip some or all of the ceremonies. All in all, New Year’s Day celebration in Ethiopia is beautiful and an eye-catching experience.

                      Adapted from English for Pre- University and College Students by Daniel Legesse

Exercise 2: Write True if the statement is correct and write False if the statement is wrong depending on what you read in the passage.

  1. New Year’s Day is celebrated in every peasant’s home almost in similar fashion.
  2. On New Year’s Eve, women rise early in the morning and fetch water for those who are unable to fetch.
  3. Young girls sing New Year’s message and offer the grass to anybody they come across.
  4. Some colors of animals slaughtered during New Year festival are not welcomed.

Exercise 3: Write the number of the paragraph in front of the ideas given below in which they are mentioned.

  1. Different activities are accomplished on the Eve of the New Year.
  2. Different peasant families celebrate New Year in different ways.
  3. Young children celebrate New Year by singing New Year message.
  4. People eat and drink to their fill on New Year’s festival.

Exercise 4: The following pronouns and words are taken from the passage. Write what they refer to in the passage in front of each of them.






6……engicha……..( para.3)

7 ….. who……(.para.4)

8 .It…………(para.5)

Exercise 5: Match the words and phrases under A with their meaning listed under B. All of the words are taken from the passage.

      A                                                                    B

1.torches                                                A. early in the morning

2. skip                                                     B. enough

3. customary                                           C. enjoyed

4. festive                                                  D. jump

5. excess                                                  E. celebratory

6. celebrated                                            F. burning sticks

7. reward                                                  G. common

8. before the birds taste the water            H. farmer

9. peasant                                                  I. things given in return

    Post reading activities    

Exercise 6: Be in a group and answer the following questions.

  1. Discuss what you have read in the passage in comparison what you know about New Year in your area.  
  2. Write a paragraph about any festival you know in your area.               

Section Five: Language Awareness

Simple past tense


  1. Discuss the form and the use of the simple past tense  with your partner.
  2. Write down two sentences about what you did yesterday. Then share the sentences with your class mates.

The simple past tense in regular verbs is formed by adding –ed to the infinitive. The irregular verbs change their forms. Examples: asked, hoped, wore ,did

This tense is for actions completed in the past at a definite time.

Example: I met her yesterday.

                Pasteur died in 1895


  1. Change the following sentences in to question and negative forms

Example: she bought this car in Adama.

                Did she buy this car in Adama?

                 She did not buy this car in Adama?

  1. They went to Jima last week
  2. Yeshi asked him questions.
  3. We wrote them a letter
  4. Write two sentences using simple past tense.  Use regular and irregular verbs.
  5. Write down one questions that you can use to ask your classmate what he did last time.

Section Three: Writing

Narrative paragraph

A paragraph is said to be narrative when it tells a story or about something that happened sometime in the past. The events may be real or imaginary. Look at the following short narrative paragraph.

My first semester of college, I wanted to prove to myself that I could handle college classes, and I was determined to study hard to succeed. At least that  was how I felt when the semester began. By the end of the semester my expectations had changed a lot, but I had learned a lesson.

Activity- 1

  1. Write a narrative paragraph about one of the following topics. Then share your the paragraph with your classmates.
  2. The holiday I celebrated last time
  3. A lesson I learned in my childhood
  4. the day I won’t forget

                             Unit Three: Sport

Unit out Comes: At the end of the unit, the trainees should be able to:

  • Use appropriate formal and informal expression to offer something
  • Listen and take notes
  • Reading and do the questions
  • Form words using affixes
  • Identify the forms and make use of the past perfect tense and past perfect continuous tense and past continuous tense
  • talk about the future

Section One: Speaking


Offering something or assisting someone is a common practice in a society or in a group. The following are some of the phrases used while offering .


1Would you like coffee? I’ve brought these for youYes, Please , No, thank you.
2What can I get you?Mirinda for me , Please Nothing for me, thank you
3Shall I get it for you?Alright thank you No don’t bother


1Do you want a drink ? How about something to eat?Thanks/Ok No, thanks
2Let me get it for you I’ll get it for youNo, don’t bother, I can Do it my self


  1. Aster: Would you care for a cup of coffee, Obo Mulatu?

Obo Mulatu: Yes, thank you

  • Beletu: Where is my book?

Ayele: It’s in your bed room. Shall I get it for you?

Beletu: No, don’t bother. I’ll bring it myself.

  • Lema: Have you finished the book I gave you last week?

Zinash: Oh ——– yes, Lema. Do you want it back now?

Lema : Yeah

Zinash : I’ll get it for you now?

Lema : Ok ,thanks.

  • Gemeda : Do you want a drink?

Abera: No, thanks.


  1. Act out the above  dialogue in pairs.
  2. Create two similar dialogues of your own with your partner
  3. Make the following dialogues complete individually. Then share them to your partners
  4. Dureti: Shall I get you an Umbrella, Roba?

Roba: _________________________

Dureti: There you are

Roba :That’s very kind of you, thank you.

  • Wario : Where did you put the dictionary?

Negele : It’s on the shelf.______________?

Wario : No, it’s alright. I can bring it my self

  • Teacher : Oh! I forgot my chalk box?

Reta :___________________

Teacher :_______________________

Reta : Here you are .

Teacher : Thank you.



Pre-reading Activities

Exercise 1:  You are going to read a passage about one of the popular team sports.  Before you start read the passage, discuss the following questions in  pairs.

  1. What would you guess is the most popular team sport in the world? Baseball? Basketball or    football?

 2. Where did the modern soccer start?

3. List names given to different groups of football players depending on the position they occupy   in   the field.

4. List some of (both male and female) the world wide popular soccer players.

Now read the following passage and check whether your answers are correct or wrong.

 Soccer: The Supper Team Sport

The sport is called soccer in the United States and Canada. But in many countries it is called football, the name Americans give to an entirely different game.  Soccer is a game played by two teams on a field that is shaped like a rectangle. The players are divided as defenders, midfielders, forwards and goalie. Players generally use their feet and heads as they kick, dribble, and pass the ball toward the goal. The goalie is the only player allowed to touch the ball with the hands while the ball is in play.  Defenders, also called fullbacks, try to stop the opposing team from reaching the goal with the ball. Forwards, also called strikers, do most of the scoring. Midfielders, or halfbacks, play defense but also try to score. Most soccer games have two 45-minute halves divided by a short break, or halftime. Besides halftime, the action stops only when a team scores, a foul is committed, or a player is injured. The official who makes sure the rules are followed is called the referee. The referee can add extra time at the end of each half to make up for time lost during delays.

People have played kicking games with balls since ancient times. The modern form of soccer came from Britain. It dates from the 1860s, when the rules were first written down. By the late 1800s, British sailors, traders, and soldiers had carried the game all over the world. Professional soccer leagues soon appeared in many countries. Today, almost every country in Europe, North America, and South America has professional soccer leagues. So do many countries in Africa and Asia. One country where soccer didn’t grow very fast was the United States. It wasn’t until the 1970s that many Americans began to follow it. After that, the sport took off. Today, millions of Americans play soccer in schools, colleges, and local leagues.

The World Cup is an international soccer tournament held every four years. There is one World Cup tournament for men and another one for women. The World Cup for men is the most popular sporting event in the world. More than a billion people around the world watch the men’s World Cup on television. The 1994 men’s World Cup took place in the United States, as did the 1999 women’s World Cup. Both tournaments helped increase the popularity of soccer in the United States.

There are many famous soccer players. A good number of soccer fans consider the Brazilian forward named Pelé to be the best soccer player of all time. Pelé led Brazil to three World Cup titles, the last one in 1970. He won fame for his amazing ball control and powerful shots.  Similarly, English player David Beckham is famous for his long, curving shots. An attacking midfielder, Beckham led the English national team to the quarterfinals in the 2002 World Cup. Ronaldo, another Brazilian forward, is known for his great speed and scoring ability. In 2002, Ronaldo scored both goals in the World Cup final, giving Brazil the championship. Among women soccer players, the American player Mia Hamm is considered one of the greatest female players. A forward, Hamm is the all-time leading scorer in international soccer. In 1999, she led the United States to the women’s World Cup title. Generally, foot ball is an international team sport that has a large number of followers from every corner of the world.

                                                                                                    Taken from Encarta 2009

Exercise2: The following are the main ideas mentioned in the above paragraph you read. Write the paragraph in which the main idea is mentioned.

1. How football started and came to its modern status.

2. The worldwide famous football players.

3. International soccer World Cup held every four year both for men and women.

4. The meaning of football and how it is played.

Exercise 3: Answer the following questions depending on the information given in the reading passage.

  1. In which year David Beckham led English national team to the World Cup?
  2. What are the differences between the skills of foot ball playing of Pele and Ronaldo?
  3. Where and when the modern soccer rules written down?
  4. Which group of foot ball players is responsible to score goals?
  5. In which country that the development of soccer game is very slow up the recent time?

Exercise 4: Fill in the blank spaces with the appropriate forms of the following words which are taken from the passage.

         fans                                                         dribble                                    foul

         forward                                                    goalie                                tournament                                                                                                                                          

          took off                                                    referee                                fullbacks  

  1. The ____________ gave a free kick to the Nigerian National team though the Ethiopian National team has not committed a foul.
  2. The Manchester United Club has gotten so many_______ because of its success in winning many matches.
  3. Most of the time, the ______________have more chances of scoring goals than other group of players.
  4. Our national team missed a free kick in the last_______________ which resulted in to its defeat.
  5. Even though the ___________ saved many goals the club lost the cup because of disorganization of the players.
  6. Though the club is stuffed with professional players, the club did not win the match because many ________ committed by the players.
  7. The Ethiopian National team has suddenly________ and on the way of becoming very strong football club in the Horn of Africa.
  8. ________________ are a group of football players that defend the opposing group not to reach the goal with the ball.
  9. It is not advisable for players to __________ the ball around the goal because it is risky in case the ball is snatched by the opposing group.

Exercise 5: Write what the following clauses and sentences imply or infer in the above reading passage.

  1. ….. football is the name Americans give to an entirely different game.
  2. The goalie is the only player allowed to touch the ball with the hands….what do you infer about other players with regard to touching the ball with the hands.
  3. Most soccer games have two 45-minute halves….What does this statement implies about total time of the game?

 Section four: Vocabulary

Forming words Using affixes

Activity -1

Answer the following questions first by yourself . Then share the answers with your partners.

  1. What does an affix mean?
  2. Write down the different affixes you know.
  3. What are these affixes used for?

There are different techniques of forming new words. Some of them are:

  • Joining two or more separate words to produce a single word

Example: Wallpaper, textbook

  • forming words from the initial letters of a set of words.

Example:CD – Compact Disk

NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • Affixation (forming words using prefixes and affixes)

Example: incorrect (in-)

                 Beautiful (-ful)

Activity -2

  1. Use the following prefixes and write examples for each. Explain the meaning of the prefixes too







  • Write examples for each of the following affixes with their meaning.

-ful                               -ly

-less                             -lity

-hood                           -ism



3. Create your own sentences using the following words and share them to the whole class






Section Five: Language Awareness

The Past Continuous Tense

Activity -1

  1. Write one sentence about yourself using past continuous tense, and share it to your partners.
  2. Discuss the form and the use the past continuous tense in group of five.

The past continuous tense is formed by the past tense of the verb to be + the present participle (e.g was doing, were working). It is used to talk about past actions which continued for sometime.

Examples: I was working

                     She was not working

                      Were you working?



  1. Look back to the sentence you wrote under activity -1. Discuss with your partners whether your sentence is in past continuous tense or not
  2.  Suppose yeshi, Gemeda and Gelchu are your classmates. Ask Yeshi what Gemeda and Gelchu were doing when your English instructor entered class yesterday. Also ask Yeshi what she was doing at that time.

Past perfect tense

Activity- 1

  1. Do you know what the past perfect tense is? Discuss how this tense is formed in group of five
  2. Identify the past perfect tense from the following sentence and discuss it with your group members.

He had served in the army for ten Years before he got married.

The past  perfect tense is formed with had+v3, and it is used for action which took place before another action some in the past.


  1. When they reached the bus station, the bus had already left.
  2. Before the teacher entered class, the class monitor had cleaned the board.


  1. Write the past perfect tense of the verbs provided in the brackets.

A/ She refused to go till she________( has see) all the pictures.

B/ Before we_______ (have finish) our meal, he ordered us back to work

  • Write one sentence about yourself with the past perfect tense and share it to the whole class

The past perfect continuous tense

Activity- 1

  1. What is the difference between the past perfect and the past perfect continuous tenses? Share your ideas to your class mates.
  2. Can you write one sentence using the past perfect continues tense?

The form and use of this tense

Form: Had been + the present participle

            E.g had been discussing

Use: When the action began before the time of speaking in the past and continved up to that time or stopped just before it.

Examples : He had been trying to get her on the phone.


  1. Write two sentences of your own using the past perfect tense.

Talking about the Future


  1. Tell your class mate your future goal. Also ask him/ her to tell you

his/ hers.

  • Discuss the phrases or words you use to talk about the future.

Look at the following example sentences

A/ I will be teacher in the future

B/ The phone is ringing. I will answer it.

C/ I am taking the exam in October

D/ He is going to lecture in English

E/ The girls start school on Monday

There are many ways of expressing the future in English.  When can use: the simple present tense(E), the present continuous tense (C), going to (D) and will (A&B).

The simple present tense can be used with a time expression to talk about a definite future arrangement. The present continuous is used as a future form when it expresses a definite arrangement in the near future.

The ‘be going to form’ expresses the subject’s intention to perform a certain future action. Will plus infinitive is used to express intention at the moment of decision. The be going to

Can be used to replace the present contiguous tense to express the future time


  1. Write your own sentences to express the future using:

A/ will plus infinitive

B/ be going to

C/ Simple present tense

  • Share the sentences with your class mates (do this in group of three).

Unit -4: Harmful Traditional Practices

Unit outcomes: At the end of the unit the trainees should be able to:

  • Listen and take notes
  • Read and make notes
  • Identify different kinds of auxiliary verbs
  • Use auxiliary verbs to form questions
  • Use auxiliary verbs to make negative statements
  • Use auxiliary verbs to form passive voices
  • Convert active voice into passive voices

Section 3:

  • Auxiliary and model verbs
  • Activity -1
  • What do auxiliary and modal verbs mean? Discuss in group of three.
  • Can you provide some examples for these types of verbs?

Look at the following auxiliary verbs

Principal auxiliaries

To be (is, am, are, was, were, been)

To have (have, has, had)

To do (do, does, did, done)

Modal auxiliaries

Can                              will

May                             could

Must                            might

Ought                          should

Shall                            would

Auxiliaries help to form tenses; they combine with present or past participle or with infinitive to form the tenses of the ordinary verbs.

He is coming.   They are writing.   She went home.   He needs to wait.   They like orange.  He is not coming.   They are not writing.   She didn’t go home.   He does not need to wait.   They do not like orange.Is he coming?   Are they writing?   Did she go home?   Does he need to wait?   Do they like orange?

            Activity- 2

Change the following statements in to negative and question form.

  1. He works hard.
  2. Peter and John drink beer.
  3. Almaz wrote alerter to Yeshi.
  4. You should pay it.
  5. They must do it.
  6. She will reach tomorrow.
  7. Dureti has finished her assignment.
  8. Roba is reading the book

Activity- 3

Discuss the difference between the following pairs of sentences with your classmates (do it in group of 5)

  1. She cleaned the room.

The room was cleaned (by her).

  • They are watching the flowers .

The flowers are being watered (by them).

The first sentences in the two pairs are in active form, and the second ones are in passive form .we use the passive form of verbs when we are more interested in the action done rather than the doer of the action. We use the active form when we give more attention to the doer of the action


Activity- 4

Change the following active sentences into passive.

  1. They will mend the pipe.
  2. She cleans the room.
  3. He killed the rat.
  4. They have cut down the tree.

Activity- 5

Write the verbs in the brackets either in the active or passive form.

  1. Afan Oromo (speak) in many parts of Ethiopian.
  2. The students (discuss) the issue this morning.
  3. The car (sell) last week.
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